download Breadwinners and Citizens: Gender in the Making of the French Social Model Epub by Laura L. Frader – theaquariumwiki.co.uk

Foreign workersFrader is chiefly concerned with how hegemonic ideas about gender were constructed not how they were challenged Thus she tends to discount opposition to the male breadwinner ideal from feminists female labor leaders and working women themselves She characterizes women s alternative vision of egalitarian gender relations as utopian p 46 However she acknowledges some victories publically employed r dactrices chief clerks won the right to eual pay in the early 1920s and dames employ es female postal workers secured it by the end of the decad. Easing number of immigrant men in the labor Force Competed For Employment And competed For Employment And Family employment and Family was used not only to encourage reproduction but also to regulate wages and the size of the workforce Policies to promote married women's and immigrants departure from the labor force were common when jobs were scarce as they were during the Depression Frader contends that gender and ethnicity exerted a powerful and unacknowledged influence on French social policy during theDepression era and for decades afterwardAbout the AuthorLaura Levine Frader is Professor of History at Northeastern Universit. Frader argues that the demographic crisis set off by France s high casualty rates in the First World War led to pronatalist policies that affirmed men as wage earners while casting women as mothers first and workers second While previous scholars have pointed to women s high rates of labor force participation in France as evidence of

A Relatively Weak Male 
relatively weak male ideal Frader argues that this perspective masks the strong historical ambivalence surrounding women s work and the persistent efforts to contest and contain women s rights as wage earners p 6French men not Laura Levine Frader's synthesis of labor history and Gender History Brings To The Fore Failures In Realizing The history brings to the fore failures in realizing the social model of euality for all citizens Challenging previous scholarship she argues that the male breadwinner ideal was stronger in France in the interwar years than scholars have typically recognized and that it had negative conseuences for women's claims to the full benefits of citizenship She describes how ideas about masculinity femininity family and work affected post World War I reconstruction policies designed to address France's postwar population deficit and effo.

Laura L. Frader ç 3 free download

Nly earned higher wages and greater access to skilled positions but also consistently enjoyed better social benefits including family allowances for dependent consistently enjoyed better social benefits including family allowances for dependent Political social and economic citizenship reinforced each other and women who did not gain the right to vote in France until 1944 remained marginal players in all three arenas The Depression of the 1930s affirmed rather than challenged the model of the male breadwinner Frader argues employers tried to preserve French men s jobs at the expense of married women s positions and popular sentiment turned against. Rts to redefine citizenship s jobs at the expense of married women s positions and popular sentiment turned against. Rts to redefine citizenship the 1920s and 1930s She demonstrates that gender divisions and the male breadwinner ideal were reaffirmed through the policies and practices of labor management and government The social model that France implemented in the 1920s and 1930s incorporated fundamental social ineualitiesFrader's analysis moves between the everyday lives of ordinary working women and men and the actions of national policymakers political parties and political movements including feminists pro natalists and trade unionists In the years following World War I the many women and an incr. Breadwinners and Citizens: Gender in the Making of the French Social Model

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