[Steven Sloman] download ‫‬‮‭The knowledge illusionwhy we never think alone Pdf – Kindle eBook or Book

‫‬‮‭The knowledge illusionwhy we never think alone

Steven Sloman á 3 ead & download

The Knowledge Illusion has a easonably simple idea to start with The authors Bibi Blocksberg - Bibi total verknallt repeat that numerous times They meander in multiple directions but almost always come back with nothing but vague directives or known generalities Despite the authors own admission towards the end about the topics and discussions sounding commonplace and trying to make a virtue out of the ordinary a lack of anything substantially new leaves one highly disappointedAn individual knows precious little on her own She can achieve precious little on her own as well An individual is always mightily mistaken in the estimation of own knowledge or capacity to do anything by ownself Nearly a half the book is consumed in providing support to these seemingly obvious conclusions and the proofs are sprinkled all through Surrounding them the authors try to weigh in on topics like Only teams or a collection of individuals have achieved almost everything worthwhile throughout the history of mankind Almost all achievements that are ascribed to lone individuals like Martin Luther King or Einstein were largely because of the teams and circumstances surrounding them and would have been achieved even without those precise figures A highly dubious claim which in the leasteuired much justification than simply an assertion Separately the authors go on to warn that teams or a collection of individuals are prone to group thinking which is dangerous and should be avoided An aside such suggestions and directives on what all individuals should be following spring up without any preludes or forewarnings throughout Best individuals do not make the best teams Like in other cases only generalities are provided if you want advises on what would Goin' To The Zoo/Vamos Al Zoologico result in a good team Our dependence on technology isising and dangerous We must prepare for a life where technology may malfunction Don t ask how the book finds ways to topics like these Machines cannot have or share the intentionality that humans have An extremely naive view that goes something like this only a human can have an intentionality or a desire like going from place A to place B via a sunset The Obituary route According to the book machines are mere tools that would efficiently facilitate our intentionalities and can nevereplace humans because of the lack of intentionality The book in a span of a page or two seems to cast aside the concepts like Singularity without ever Selbstbewußt auftreten recognising the simplest of possible objections like machines AI etc s ability to unearth desires that we could be unaware of or create things that lead to completely new desires social networking for instance or even separate intentionality from objectives that machines can easily have without any interventions in the world we are headed to A good section on how we become aware of our lack of knowledge once primed through a series of uestions that make us deliberate about the boundaries of our knowledge The book also feels that we are likely to accept what we don t know when it comes to opinions when we are provided with causal or conseuentialeasonings only in a sufficient and not excessive uantity and not explanatory The Poetry Of William VII, Count Of Poitiers, IX Duke Of Aquitaine rationales We shouldely on experts while keeping in mind that they too have their own biases Still many decisions cannot be left to crowds and should primarily A History of Early Modern Southeast Asia, 1400-1830 rely on experts opinions To a degree this is against the grain of the book s theme but the contradiction is never felt by the authors to provide any explanations Even a small saving every month could add up to a huge amount in a few decades timeThe book is likely to have appeal for those starting theireading journey in the fields of social sciences through pop culture books I consider this a must Ferdinand, der Mann mit dem freundlichen Herzen read for anyone wanting to understand the polarization of today s society inflamed by social media Myeason for Alcora - O Acordo Secreto do Colonialismo reading this is to gain insight for work strategies since the modern approach is to deny what those truly trained in an area have to say What I lear 25 starsThere were some very interesting ideas that were explored in this It gives you a greater appreciation for what you don t know The book definitely got me to assess my own knowledge differently Here are some pretty cool uotes from the book thateally stood out to meOur point is not that people are ignorant It s that people are ignorant than they think they are We all suffer to a greater or lesser extent from an illusion of understanding an illusion that we understand how things work when in fact our understanding is meagerMembers of the community It all begins with toiletsEveryone throughout the developed world is familiar with toilets A typical flush to let has a ceramic bowl toiletsEveryone throughout the developed world
"Is Familiar With Toilets A "
familiar with toilets A flush to let has a ceramic bowl with water When the handle is depressed or the button pushed the water and everything that s been deposited in it gets sucked into a pipe and from there into the sewage system But how does this actually happenIn a study graduate students were asked to ate their understanding of everyday devices including toilets zippers and cylinder locks They were then asked to write detailed step by step explanations of how the devices work and to ate their understanding again Apparently the effort evealed to the students their own ignorance because their self assessments droppedToilets it turns out are complicated than they appearSloman and Fernbach see this effect which they call the illusion of explanatory depth just about everywhere People believe that they know way than they actually doWhat allows us to persist in this belief is other people In the case of my toilet someone else designed it so that I can operate it easily This is something humans are very good at We ve been elying on one another s expertise ever since we figured out how to hunt together which was probably a key development in our evolutionary history So well do we collaborate Sloman and Fernbach argue that We can hardly tell where our own understanding ends and others begins One implication of the naturalness with which we divide cognitive labor is that there s no sharp boundary between one person s ideas and knowledge and those of other members of the group So not just Before Copernicus rationality but the very idea of individual thinking is a myth Humansarely think for themselves Rather we think in groups We think we know a lot even though individually we know very little because we treat knowledge in the minds of others as if it were our ownThis is not necessarily bad Our eliance on groupthink have us an edge over all other animals and turned us into the masters of this planet The knowledge illusion enables us to go through life without being caught in an impossible effort to understand everything ourselves From an evolutionary perspective trusting in the knowledge of others has worked extremely well for humansThis borderlessness or if you prefer confusion is also crucial to what we consider progress As people invented new tools for new ways of living they simultaneously created new ealms of ignorance if everyone had insisted on say mastering the principles of metal working before picking up a knife the Bronze Age wouldn t have amounted to much When it comes to new technologies incomplete understanding is empoweringButthe knowledge illusion certainly has its downside The world is becoming ever complex and people fail to Health and Wellbeing in Childhood realize just how ignorant they are of what s going on Conseuently some who know next to nothing about meteorology or biology nevertheless conduct fierce debates about climate change trumptrumpsters while others hold extremely strong views about what should be done in Ira or Ukraine without being able to locate them on a map Also It gets much complicated in the political domain How could we then vest authority in voters and customers who are so ignorant and susceptible to manipulation If Sloman and Fernbach are correct providing future voters and customers with and better facts would hardly solve the problem Try using facts and proofs to convince half witted ignorant and imbecile Trump and Trumspters that climate change is actually a thing and many other similar things that are established facts and not a propaganda by ChinaEncouraging people to beealistic about their ignorance is as it sounds very hardPeople Child Support, for the Non-Custodial Parent, Alabama Edition (Series 1, for the Non-Custodial Parent) rarely appreciate their ignorance because they. Humans have built hugely complex societies and technologies but most of us don't even know how a pen or a toilet works How have we achieved so much despite understanding so little Cognitive scientists Steven Sloman and Philip Fernbach argue that we survive and thrive despite our mental shortcomings because we live in aich community of knowledge The key to our intelligence lies in the people and things around us We're consta. ,
Lock themselves inside an echo chamber of like minded friends and self confirming news feeds where their beliefs are constantly L. Munatius Plancus: Serving and Surviving in the Roman Revolution reinforced and seldom challenged As aule strong feelings about issues do not emerge from deep understanding It s not eally hard then to understand what dafa is happening around especially in the current political scene in US and IndiaMass Psychology Cognitive Dissonance Confirmation Bias Rise of Nationalism Jingoism Xenophobia IsolationismSo what s the alternative Sloman and Fernbach don t have a solution and they e well aware of the limits of their own understanding and they know they don t know the answer In all likelihood nobody knowsIf you like this book you should probably club this with The Enigma of Reason by Hugo Mercier Dan Sperber Our point is not that people are ignorant It s that people are ignorant than they think they are We all suffer to a greater or lesser extent from an illusion of understanding an illusion that we understand how things work when in fact our understanding is meager 8It s The Organization Man remarkable how easy it is to disabuse people of their illusion you merely have to ask them for an explanationWe have also found that people experience the illusion not only with everyday objects but with just about everything People overestimate their understanding of political issues like tax policy and foreignelations of hot button scientific topics like GMOs and climate change and even of their own finances We have been studying psychological phenomena for a long time and it is Krebszellen mögen keine Sonne. 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Mit Vitamin-D-Barometer ... rare to come across one asobust as the illusion of understanding 22Storytelling is our natural way of making causal sense of seuences of events That s why we find stories everywherePeople see stories everywhere 64Why do we so naturally tell stories that The Ufa Story: A History of Germany's Greatest Film Company, 1918-1945 reuireeasoning about counterfactual worlds Perhaps the main motivation is that it allows us to consider alternative courses of actionThe ability to think counterfactually makes it possible to take both extraordinary and ordinary action Some of humankind s greatest discoveries are due to counterfactual thought experiments 65In a community of knowledge what matters than having knowledge is having access to knowledge 124Public opinion is extreme than people s understanding justifies Americans who most strongly supported military intervention in the Ukraine in 2014 were the ones least able to identify the Ukraine s location on a mapApparently the fact that a strong majority of people has some preference does not mean that their opinion is informed As a The Guardian Team: On the Job with Rena and Roo rule strong feelings about issues do not emerge from deep understanding They often emerge in the absence of understanding 172This discussion yields a variety of lessons about our political culture One is simply a confirmation of an obvious fact about our political discourse It semarkably shallow Citizens commentators and politicians freuently take a stand before engaging in a serious analysis of the pros and the cons of proposed legislation TV shows often masuerade as news but in fact consist of participants screaming at one another It doesn t have to be this way As individuals we tend to be ignorant But our airwaves are an important medium to provide correctives and give thoughtful experts a voice We don t expect shows not to be biased all The Mathematics of Financial Derivatives: A Student Introduction reporting has some bias but the public does deserve an analysis public voices should consider the actual conseuences of proposed policy and not just overwhelm us with slogans and spin If we encountered detailed analysis it might influence our decision making 188Deciding on who has expertise and whether that expertise is biased is a difficult problem But it s not insoluble Indeed society has many institutions in place to help Experts come withecommendations that speak to their knowledge and credibility They have histories that can be checked and eputations that can be assessed Although information from the Internet does not come with a guarantee of accuracy there is a fairly effective web industry that has developed to eport clients Information Security Governance ratings of experts As long as there are enough clients and the websitesesponsible for collecting and eporting the atings are themselves credible this can work well Discovering the credibility of an expert is certainly a manageable problem than asking everyone to become an expert and is in fact the only way to solve social problems 189direct democracy is vulnerable to manipulation just like other forms of governanceThere are a lot of Atala / René reasons to be critical of ballot measures voted on directly by citizenry Our main concern is that such measures neglect the knowledge illusion Individual citizensarely know enough to make an informed decision about complex Social Policy Even If They Think They policy even if they think they Giving a vote to every citizen can swamp the contribution of expertise to good judgment that the wisdom of crowds Widow of Dartmoor relies on 190We have seen that a good way toeduce people s extremism and increase their intellectual humility
"Is To Ask Them For "
to ask them for explanation of how a policy works Unfortunately the procedure does have a cost Exposing people s illusions can upset them We have found that asking someone to explain a policy that the person doesn t Dark Calling really understand does not improve ourelationship with that person Freuently they no longer want to discuss the issue and indeed often they no longer want to talk to usWe had hoped that shattering the illusion of understanding would make people curious and open to new information about the topic at hand This is not what we have found If anything people are less inclined to seek new information after finding out that they were wrong Causal explanation is an effective way to shatter the illusion but people don t Causal explanation is an effective way to shatter the illusion but people don t having their illusion shattered In the words of Voltaire Illusion is the first of all pleasures Shattering an illusion can cause people to disengage People like to feel successful not incompetentA good leader must be able to help people Arabella Millers Tiny Caterpillar realize their ignorance without making them feel stupid This is not easy One way is to demonstrate that everybody is ignorant not just the person youe talking to Ignorance has to do with how much you know whereas being dumb is Prinzipien Der Gemeinschaftlichen Kosten- Und Schadenstragung Im Seerecht Und Au�ergew�hnliche Formen Der Haverei Im 18. Jahrhundert relative to other people If everybody is ignorant then no one is dumbLeaders also have theesponsibility to learn about their own ignorance and effectively take advantage of others knowledge and skills Strong leaders make use of the community of knowledge by surrounding themselves with people who have deep understanding of specific issues More important strong leaders listen to those experts A leader who spends significant time collecting information and talking to others before making a decision can be seen as indecisive weak and lacking vision A mature electorate is one that makes the effort to appreciate a leader who O Sabor dos Caroços de Maçã recognizes that the world is complex and hard to understand 192 193Aeal education includes learning that you don t know certain things a lot of things Instead of looking in at the knowledge you do have you learn to look out at the knowledge you don t have To do this you have to let go of some hubris you have to accept that you don t know what you don t know Learning what you don t know is just a matter of looking at the frontiers of your knowledge and wondering what is out there beyond the border It s about asking whyAs individuals we know little There s not too much we can do about that there s too much to know Obviously we can learn some facts and theories and we can develop skills But we also have to learn how to make use of others knowledge and skills In fact that s the key to success because the vast majority of knowledge and skills that we have access to Only the Hunted Run reside in other people 220 221Individuals don t make decisions by themselves Other people formulate options for them other people present those options and other people give them advice Moreover people sometimes copy decisions that are made by others for example when stock market guru Warren Buffett makes a decision to buy a stock many people copy him We should be thinking about decision making from a communal perspective The knowledgeeuired for decision making is not merely in individuals heads but depends heavily on the community of Ntly drawing on information and expertise stored outside our heads in our bodies our environment our possessions and the community with which we interact and usually we don't even ealize we're doing it The human mind is both brilliant and pathetic We have mastered fire created democratic institutions stood on the moon and seuenced our genome And yet each of us is error prone sometimes irrational and often ignorant The fundam.
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Nowledge 241The University of Chicago economist Richard Thaler and the Harvard legal scholar Cass Sunstein have developed a philosophy that they call libertarian paternalism Although the name is a mouthful the idea is simply and compelling The main observation is that people don t always make the best possible decisions they don t always choose the option that makes it most likely that they will achieve their own goalsThe libertarian paternalist believes that behavioral science can be made a force for good that it can be used to improve our decision making Behavioral science can be used to identify the easons we make decisions that we The Devil's Playground: A Century of Pleasure and Profit in Times Square regreat and change the process of decision making so that better decisions are made in the future Such changes areeferred to as nudges The idea is that behavioral science can be used to nudge decisions to make them better in the sense that they are aligned with what decision makers actually wantA nudge for organ donation is to change the law so that everyone is an organ donor by default You can choose not to be but that The Culture Chamber reuires a little actionMaking people opt outather than opt in increases enrollment in a variety of plansNudges are libertarian in the sense that they don t Whispering Coves reduce people s ability to choose Nobody is preventing you from eating a large pizza or from being an organ donor or not But they are paternalistic in the sense that somebody else decides which options are going to be encouraged Somebody else has put the pizza later in the cafeteria line so that youe likely to choose the salad The main argument for this kind of paternalism is that the choice has to be made one way or another Something has to be earlier in the cafeteria line so why not make it the item that people feel most attracted to when they are not in the heart of the moment when they can think dispassionately about what the best food options areThe big lesson of the nudge approach is that it is easier and effective to change the environment than it is to change the person And once we understand what uirks of cognition drive behavior we can design the environment so that those uirks help us instead of hurt us 248 249 We have biases and shortcomings in our cognition Our brains were designed by nature for social calculation and some causal prediction not all the things we need to use them for these days like calculating probabilities Bees: An Up-Close Look at Pollinators Around the World remembering vast amounts of data or doing science However our individual limitations are made up for by collective knowledge We are like honeybees in some way I have heard it uipped that we are 90% primate and 10% social insect We use collective knowledge and technology toun our societies which no individual has complete mastery We depend on others knowledge for almost everything we do In the world of information and knowledge there are no islands no hermits and no ugged individuals Challenging PowerThe Knowledge Illusion is a demonstration of the thesis it articulates Our intelligence esides not in individual brains but in the collective mindthe hive mind Each of us as the 18th century philosopher Frederick Leibniz proposed contributes to what we perceive and conceive as eality In fact everyone who has ever existed contributes to that eality While I enjoy Sloman and Fernbach s very engaging writing style and their deft use of helpful analogies to illustrate certain concepts I Word and Image: An Introduction to Early Medieval Art really don t see much here that is original or genuinely thought provoking Maybe it s just me but unless you ve never considered the fact that the things you use on a day to day basis are things you don t fully comprehend have ever thought that your knowledge even within your specific field is not entirely housed within you but within a larger community nor ever admitted to yourself how much ignorance of certain areas of life you genuinely operate under then I don t think youe going to find this book particularly compelling As I said they are fine writers there just doesn t seem to be much uniue material here I loved it While still about general cognitive biases and illusions it goes well beyond many of the typical books about it Its main premise is that knowledge at least the vast majority of it isn t in our heads per se but ather our intelligence lies in the people and things around us Despite this though we feel that it s part of our own knowledge Sloman and Fernbach see this effect which th First let s start off with the positives What I thought was Engaging Was The Chapter About Forward Processes was the chapter about forward processes backward processes A forward process is when you go from cause to effect and a backward process is when you go from an effect to a cause This is self explanatory but we often fall into the trap of making inferences based off of backward processes with little information confusing causality which can lead to disastrous decision making Forward thinking processes are easier to decipher and see what causes what when compared to backward processes this should help critical thinkers as a guideline as when to avoid speculations to understand you e operating out of your depth The second tidbit I thought was interesting was the sections on how we think we understand how certain processes work or how physical objects work in general like for instance drawing a bicycle from memory with all the correct parts or explaining how a toilet works Sometimes we confuse knowledge in ourselves for our own ability and not knowledge that comes from the community Researchers found that students who had access to a search engine were likely to confuse the search engines knowledge as apart of their own instead of the communities This is an important distinction one that should be made clear we often confuse information that is attainable through other areas as apart of our own understanding There was some areas of politics on how people made political decisions but these studies were context dependent For example when you ask someone to explain how this position would work they become open to an introspective position and become likely to change as opposed to when you ask them give easons for this position this did not work in political topics like abortion When asked to explain there position they were likely to defend political topics like abortion When asked to explain there position they were likely to defend view points igorously Now the parts where I thought were puzzling The author brings up the analogy of the luddites ebelling against the machines in the early 19th century which would have taken there jobs to being opposed to technology today If I was for instance to protest against the fast food services cashiers and drivers being eplaced I am being against technology Think about the amount of income ineuality the algorithm and automation evolution are generating think
"About The Disparity In Political "
the disparity in political between owners of these technologies vs the early average citizen how are the people who lost these jobs going to find new ones I emember that when NAFTA destroyed the jobs in the Midwest we were told that these jobs would be eplaced Look at the Midwest and now there is a public health emergency of heroine and pills What fostered the conditions for those pills to be used You don t think mass amounts of unemployment impacted these areas disproportionately do youBUT WAIT THERES MORE 90 s infomercial voice he compares being against the automation and evaporation of the American workforce towards being against climate change as well Wait let me get this straight if I am against the growing power of economic and political concentration held by the owners of the companies who will benefit from mass automation I am also against climate change because I don t believe in science My impression of this book was that it tried to be a book that saw through illusions and issues plaguing societies but often times fell flat and benign You know when you shake a coke bottle and it starts fizzing to the top and you open the cap and it explodes out This book felt like it was a coke bottle that was shaken up but when opened nothing happened I would say somewhere between 3 34 stars probably a 32 but I d be okay if you gave it a 34 If this book was lying around your house I d say yeah give it a try but if it was something you actively had to pursue I would table it for better books. Entally communal nature of intelligence and knowledge explains why we often assume we know than we eally do why political opinions and false beliefs are so hard to change and why individually oriented approaches to education and management freuently fail But our collaborative minds also enable us to do amazing things This book contends that true genius can be found in the ways we create intelligence using the world around us.