Lezioni americane sei proposte per il prossimo millennio [kindle / PDF] ✓ Italo Calvino

Re le battute e le citazioni en passant hanno pi gusto uando le si assaggia solo col pensiero senza adoperare il bisturi del ragionamento scritto che ne suarcerebbe il velo Ma arriviamo cos alla citazione che vi avevo promesso col mio attacco no non era uella la citazione ossia le parole con cui Calvino commenta uesto episodioL agile salto improvviso del poeta filosofo si solleva sulla pesantezza del mondo dimostrando che la sua gravit contiene il segreto della leggerezza mentre uella che molti credono essere la vitalit dei tempi rumorosa aggressiva scalpitante e rombante appartiene al regno della morte come un cimitero d automobili arrugginiteEcco perch uesti saggi andrebbero letti a tutti e da tutti Anche per tante altre ragioni ma soprattutto per uesta perch Calvino non parla mai di letteratura per la letteratura Parla di letteratura per l oggi Parla di letteratura per me e per i miei coinuilini ingegneri per mia madre che uando sente nominare Dante suda perch le ricorda le interrogazioni al liceo per mio padre medico che da ragazzino voleva leggere ma non poteva farlo perch non poteva permettersi i libri per mia sorella ragazzina che i libri pu permetterseli ma pare che non voglia investirci pi tempo di uanto sia decoroso per una giovincella degli anni duemila uando Calvino parla di letteratura parla della mia letteratura della sua letteratura della letteratura di tutti e della letteratura che non esiste e che forse esister o forse no lui una buona parola ce l ha messa Parla di una letteratura eterea come profumo e concreta come pane e io lo amouindi gente parliamo un po di letteratura anche noi parliamone senza essere pesanti e senza essere frivoli Parliamo di letteratura e facciamo vedere che esser leggeri si pu ed un bene e che ancor meglio se si leggeri pensando Che se ualcuno se lo stesse chiedendo non affatto un ossimoroENGLISH REVIEWIn order to explain you why everybody should read this book even those who about literature don t care and don t understand a thing I ll use a uote just one uoteWe are in the first of the lectures or memos according to the title Lightness According to Calvino one of the most effective symbols of this value is the character of Guido Cavalcanti he s an Italian poet of the XIII century he really existed but be aware that here Calvino s talking about the fictional character whom we find in the ninth story of the sixth day in Boccaccio s Decameron Cavalcanti is uiet solitary he seems many things but at least at the beginning of the story he does not seem light uite the opposite he s an intellectual a philosopher a man of letters a young man who rather than spending his time with the boisterous Florentine youth prefers devoting himself to his studies and his meditations So one day Messer Betto and his company see Guido walking meditatively among the marble tombs placed in front of the church of San Giovanni in Florence and they decide to have a little fun of him Guido s reply floors them Gentlemen you may say anything you wish to me in your own home And that s how Boccaccio s goes on Then resting his hand on one of the great tombs and being very nimble he leaped over it and landing on the other side made off and rid himself of them I could write a never ending poem about why this translation Calvino is just so effortlessly wonderful He and literature have a very intimate relationship and she tells him secrets about herself that no one else gets to hear Until now Calvino spills the beans on what are the ualities he feels are most important to the literature of the future lightness uickness exactitude visibility and multiplicityI think my favorites were lightness and multiplicity considering that uickness exactitude and visibility seem to be very self evidently positive ualities of literature who wants to read a slow vague abstract novel But the idea of lightness as a positive uality was fresh for me not lightness as insubstantial but rather be light like the bird not the feather And the goal of literature as a connector of the wildly disparate nowledges of the modern world the multiplicity of Singing the Law knowledge in every book I think is a courageous call to arms especially if coupled with uickness and lightnessCalvino occasionally meanders a wee bit too far from his topics in the essays but his digressions are terrifically thought provoking His vastnowledge of world literature is also inspiring he basically provides a list of great authors you read if they re good enough for CalvinoAlthough this the potential to be a little bit too academic for some I heartily recommend this as caviar for a hungry mind I would not be so drastic I think we Are Always Searching For Something Hidden Or always searching for something hidden or potential or hypothetical following its traces whenever they appear on the surface I think our basic mental processes have come down to us through every period of history ever since our Paleolithic forefathers who were hunters and gatherers The word connects the visible trace with the invisible thing the absent thing the thing that is desired or feared like a frail emergency bridge flung over an abyssCalvino s posthumous lectures are a grand gallop across a cherished earth of letters The Six Memos For The Next Millennium are a celebration of Lightness uickness Exactitude Visibility and Multiplicity the sixth was never written at the time of Calvino s passing The ruminations and citations extend from Ovid and Lucretius onward through Dante Boccaccio Shakespeare Cyrano Valery Flaubert Musil and especially Borges This is a wonderful construction one without grandiosity but teeming with an organic elouenceWere I to choose an auspicious image for the new millennium I would choose that one the sudden agile leap of the poet philosopher who raises himself above the weight of the world showing that with all his gravity he ahs the secret of lightness and that what many consider to be the vitality of the times noisy aggressive revving and roaring belongs to the realm of death like a cemetery for rusty old cars This is a series of lectures and in each of them Calvino takes it upon himself to recommend to the next millennium a particular literary value which he holds dear and has tried to embody in his work That way this book becomes not only a manifesto on how to write but also a guide to interpreting Calvino s writings 1 Lightness not frivolity but a lightness of touch that allows the writer and reader to soar above the paralyzing heaviness of the world2 uickness the mental speed of the narrative he takes the rapid trot of a folktale as his model here The narrative should pull the reader along and not get mired up in uestioning the non essential parts3 Exactitude the novel should be perfectly proportioned Calvino says his guiding image when composing a literary work is the crystal the magnificent complexity of it and the fact that it can be held in one hand and admired despite all that complexity The only way to capture life might be to crystalize it with rigid rules4 Visibility or the visual nature of the literary work is all important For Calvino every story begins as a visual cue to which and images are added until he has to summon words to describe this profusion of images He worries about what will happen to the originality of the visual imagination in a world supersaturated by external images5 Multiplicity a literary work should try to encompass the whole nown world It should be ambitious beyond measure Without unachievable ambition among its practitioners literature cannot survive long So Calvino exhorts us to soar beyond the most distant horizons we can conceive of and then to look down and see everything and then write everything This section is a paean to the encyclopedic novelAnd lastly6 Incompleteness a good novel would be incomplete just like this list No one could locate the last memo. ?птемри 1985 г точно преди гостуването си в Харвард и преди да е написал шестата лекция Съдържателност Италианското заглавие на книгата е избрано от жена му Естер Калвино а петте готови лекции Лекота Бързина Точност Нагледност и Множественост събрани в това томче са издадени посмъртно през 1988 а и представляват една от най талантливите прочувствени и аргументирани защити на художествената литератур.

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Italo Calvino à 6 Summary

Lezioni americane sei proposte per il prossimo millennioAfter posting a couple grumbling reviews I owe the world of authors some gratitude I first read Calvino s little book in 1988 and periodically I pick it up and read parts of it again Six Memos are actually five lectures illuminating the ualities Calvino most valued in fiction lightness uickness exactitude visibility and multiplicity What INTERVIEWER What place if any at all does delirium have in your working life ITALO CALVINO Delirium Let s assume I answer I am always rational Whatever I say or write everything is subject to reason clarity and logic What would you think of me You d think I m completely blind when it comes to myself a sort of paranoiac If on the other hand I were to answer Oh yes I am really delirious I always write as if I were in a trance I don t now how I write such crazy things you d think me a fake playing a not too credible character Maybe the uestion we should start from is what of myself do I put into what I write My answer I put my reason my will my taste the culture I belong to but at the same time I cannot control shall we say my neurosis or what we could call delirium Italo Calvino is a literary philosopher He has always strived to provide an alternative view to see through this world and to decipher its beauty and secrets through the mode of imagination and fantasy His mind is few of those which fascinates and asks me to uestion the very possibilities of human intelligence When I finished reading If on a winter s night a traveller and Invisible Cities I was intrigued and thrilled and had a nagging curiosity to understand the working the underlying formula the uest which must have lead the author to write them Six Memos for the next millennium provides me a window to understand the methodology and motivation of Calvino s art and magicReading Calvino is an experience in itself He has the marvelous gift to create at the juxtaposition of science and art the man who wants to combine both This particular book under discussion is a loose speech prepared to be delivered in Charles Eliot Norton Lectures in 1984 They became an obsession and one day he announced to me that he had ideas and material for eight lectures writes his wife Esther And further continues to say that the eighth lecture had it been presented would have been On the beginning and the endingof novels But this collection has five lectures sixth one unwritten and provides the dissection of Calvino s own works and also an idea of the enormous range of his inspirationsHeads up Calvino places Lightness as the first value to be discussed As someone whose writings makes the reader to fly it is no surprise that Calvino places this value on top He is uick to make it clear that he is proposing to talk of the lightness which one derives from intelligence thoughtfulness and not the lightness of frivolity Lightness for me goes with precision and determination not with vagueness and the haphazard and aptly uotes Paul Valery One should be light like a bird and not like a feather Of all the passages which he writes to espouse his first value the one that stood close to my heart is his tribute to Milan Khundera s novel The unbearable Lightness of Being When I finished Kundera s novel I had the feeling of jubilant joy and freshness as if I stood beside a waterfall with patchy greenery surrounding it I never fully understood the reason behind the light feeling I had then for the novel is an excruciatingly painful one to read But Calvino explains beautifully His novel shows how everything we choose and value in life for its lightness soon reveals its true unbearable weight Perhaps only the liveliness and mobility of the intelligence escape this sentence the very ualities with which this novel is written and which belong to a world uite different from the one we live in With uickness as his second lecture he brings open the secret of a story which is its economy the form and structure rhythm and underlying logic His love for fairytales and folklore and his varied reading of classics have peppered the whole book and he uotes them laboriously to show the agility of thought and expression Like a tangent that strikes an arc and flow on its own he touches Galileo Leopardi and mythology and he turns himself into a thread that connects the parallels He also predicts the sure raise of mass media and social media and had the foresight to suggest that Conciseness will be the virtue of the new millennia I will confine myself to telling you that I dream of immense cosmologies sagas and epics all reduced to the dimensions of an epigram In Exactitude and Visibility Calvino explores the calculated and well defined symmetry of a work and the beauty and nature of visual imagination respectively Julian Barnes has said Everything you invent is true you can be sure of that Poetry is a subject as precise as geometry It is the same ind of obsession which Calvino exudes His search is to create an art as perfect as a mathematical euation or a geometry To create an orderliness using literature as his medium Literature and I mean the literature that matches up these reuirements is the Promised Land in which language becomes what it really ought to beA work of literature is one of these minimal portions in which The Existent Crystallizes Into existent crystallizes into form acuires a meaning not fixed not definitive not hardened into a mineral immobility but alive as an organism Poetry is the great enemy of chance in spite of also being a daughter of chance and nowing that in the last resort chance will win the battle being a daughter of chance and nowing that in the last resort chance will win the battle Exactitude and Visibility are also the values which could easily be expected in other arts and most importantly in painting drawing etc Perhaps is it because of the fact that Calvino himself was trained in the art of drawing when he was an adolescent and his extraordinary love for movies as a youngster that must have led him to the love of forms and colorsNext to Lightness and uickness my favorite lecture is on Multiplicity No wonder Calvino is inspired by technical engineer background writers like Gadda and Musil and he is also enad by their capacity of excruciating detail He uotes Gadda Musil and Proust all of those authors who never had an ending for their works as a denouement or struggled to have a one something a game which Calvino would like to play in his literary works Isn t it ironic and looks like a divine comedy that this book which stands as his final legacy must itself remain unfinished although each of the chapters is surrealistically complete and conclusive on its own But perhaps the answer that stands closest to my heart is something else Think what it would be to have a work conceived from outside the selfa work that would let us escape the limited perspective of the individual ego not only to enter into selves like our own but to give speech to that which has no language to the bird perching on the edge of the gutterTo the tree in spring and the tree in fall to stone to cement to place Somewhere else Calvino wrote almost emphatically the less one understands the posterity will appreciate my profundity of thought In fact let me say the less one understands the posterity will appreciate my profundity of thought In fact let me say IS STUPID Think how annoyed they ll be when they read thatPerhaps Calvino might have treated Posterity with less glory and empathy But time the sure hands of which determines the best will always treasure Calvino as an original writer with a voice which movingly spoke for all that is wonderful in human beings for all the ages to come and even beyond eternityReferences1 Let s start with the fact that Italo Calvino is one of my favorite writers of all time His crystalline surrealism easy tone at least in translation and whimsical subjects by which I mean situations and characters inclusive are to me compelling To say that I went into this book with a favorable view of the author would be a gross understatement I absolute. През юни 1984 г Итало Калвино е официално поканен от Харвардския университет за лекционната поредица Чарлз Елиът Нортън Става въпрос за цикъл от шест лекции които се изнасят в рамките на една академична година за Калвино това трябва да бъде 19851986 Традицията на Нортъновите лекции започва от 1926 г и преди Калвино за тях са канени творци от порядъка на Т С Елиът Игор Стравински Хорхе Луис Борхес Нортръп Фр. Ly adore Calvino s workNow I am also discovering that I don t really like many books about writing Moorcock s Death is No Obstacle is so far as I ve read the best book on writing out there Calvino s Six Memos for the Next Millennium is a close second A very close secondWhat you won t find in this book are lessons on grammar editorial tips or the best way to market your book to the masses using obnoxious tactics like going on Goodreads and spamming members when you have not bothered to review than a half dozen books or looked to see if said members share any ind of interest in books of your type whatsoever sorry was I using my outside voice when I said that Silly meWhat you will find here is a peek behind Calvino s magic curtain You will see that even his explanations about how he does his work are magical You won t see the nuts and bolts of how Calvino mechanically goes about constructing his stories though he is very methodical but you will see a high level treatise on Calvino s state of mind as he writes This is a philosophical text cleverly disguised as a book about writingThe book is divided into five sections Five you ask What happened to the sixth The sixth memo is Consistency lightly penciled into the handwritten table of contents provided by Calvino at the beginning of the book In fact it looks as if it had been written in then erased an irony that is as Calvino esue as anything else I can think ofThe first memo Lightness is the one thing that I struggle with the most as a writer Here Calvino is not talking about lightness as it relates to hue but as it relates to mass He gives the example from Boccaccio s Decameron a story in which the Florentine poet Guido Cavalcanti is beset by some men who want to pick a philosophical fight with him in a graveyard Guido seeing himself surrounded by them answered uickly Gentlemen you may say anything you wish to me in your own home Then resting his hand on one of the great tombs and being very nimble he leaped over it and landing on the other side made off and rid himself of themNow call me strange it s true but this is something I can sink my writerly teeth into I can apply this principle of lightness not because Calvino has given me specific instructions on how to do it but because he has opened a window for me to stick my head out look around take stock of the landscape and enjoy it He s put me in the headspace I need to be in to integrate this principle of lightness into my writingAnd so it is with the remaining principles Of uickness Calvino states I am a Saturn who dreams of being a Mercury and everything I write reflects these two impulsesAnd reading the context of this memo I Literature of Africa know exactly what he means and see that struggle in myself In fact this is my favorite uote about writing ever written But can I take this down to the grammatical level and explain it to someone else Hardly Inow in my bones what Calvino is saying but explain it in figures and diagrams I cannotIn the section on Exactitude Calvino goes to some extent to explain how vagueness can only be properly described with exactitude In speaking of the evocative power of words and the importance of using them in the most exact way he states The word connects the visible trace with the invisible thing the absent thing the thing that is desired or feared like a frail emergency bridge flung over an abyssAgain a bit of intuition and reflection is reuired to really grasp what he is saying Not because his statement is poorly written but because this notion is an abstract concept This writing book if one can assign such a banal descriptor to it reuires the reader to thinkMemo four Visibility dwells on the imagination as the impetus for all creativity particularly the visual imagination While he acknowledges that literary work might arise from the hearing of a good turn of phrase or from an academic exercise the majority of such creations arise from a visual cue in the writer s mind Thus the need to use "exactitude to describe the visual seed of a story or book which allows the reader " to describe the visual seed of a story or book which allows the reader see into the mind of the writer if but for a moment and anchors the story in the reader s mindMultiplicity is the fifth and most inappropriately titled memo I might have used the word Nestedness or even Complexity to give the reader a head start but hey it wasn t my book to write I do feel that this is the weakest section of the book and Calvino acknowledges as much Lezioni americane sei proposte per il prossimo millennio Six Memos for the Next Millennium Italo CalvinoSix Memos for the Next Millennium is a book based on a series of lectures written by Italo Calvino for the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures at Harvard but never delivered as Calvino died before leaving Italy The lectures were originally written in Italian and translated by Patrick Creagh The lectures were to be given in the fall of 1985 and Memos was published in 1988 The memos are lectures on the values of literature that Calvino felt were important for the coming millennium At the time of his death Calvino had finished all but the last lecture The Memos The values which Calvino highlights are 1 Lightness 2 uickness 3 Exactitude 4 Visibility 5 Multiplicity All that which Calvino highlights are 1 Lightness 2 uickness 3 Exactitude 4 Visibility 5 Multiplicity All that Women and Sustainable Agriculture: Interviews With 14 Agents of Change known of the sixth lecture is that it was to be on consistency 2009 1387 160 9789642090139 1394 140 9789642132683 20 13051399 Italo Calvino given the meticulousness and conceptual cohesion of his storytelling is an unsurprisingly lucid theorist as well Among his final works these five essays were drawn from lectures he he was prevented from delivering by his death in 1985 each covering a different literary trait he most valued A 6th was never written down Eually ordered and discursive each offers insight into Calvino s writing though much of it this is self evident in the writing as well commentary on literary history and useful notes on areas of consideration that should really be on any writer s mind when beginning a new work Actually following that prior comment I should say these traits are SO self evident in Calvino s writing that the direct explication of them is almost unneccessary Not that there isn t much to value here but only after you ve already considered works like Invisible Cities and If on a Winter s Night a Traveler for yourself The examples outshine their analysis or any specific analysis for that matter Calvino s lectures prepared but not delivered late in his career are just as thought provoking as his fiction He discusses someey broad a English review at the bottomPer spiegarvi perch bisognerebbe leggere uesto saggio a tutti anche a chi di letteratura non gliene importa e non ne mastica user una citazione una soltantoSiamo nella prima lezione Leggerezza Uno degli emblemi di uesto valore per Calvino il Cavalcanti protagonista della novella VI9 del Decameron un personaggio silenzioso solitario un personaggio anche che all inizio della novella in uestione sembra molte cose ma non leggero un intellettuale un filosofo un letterato un giovane che rinuncia volentieri alla vita chiassosa e gaudente della giovent fiorentina e preferisce dedicarsi alla riflessione alla meditazione ai libri Tale messer Betto e la sua compagnia allora decidono un giorno di occupare il proprio tempo dando briga al povero Guido che in uel momento passeggia tra i sepolcri di marmo disposti davanti alla chiesa di San Giovanni I giovani cominciano a sbeffeggiarlo sembrano divertirsi anche finch Guido non risponde con delle parole che li spiazzano Signori voi mi potete dire a casa vostra ci che vi piace E Boccaccio continua cos E posta la mano sopra una di uelle arche che grandi erano s come colui che leggerissimo era prese un salto e fusi gittato dall altra parte e sviluppatosi da loro se n and L interpretazione di uesta controbattuta deliziosa e la lascio a voi perch come mi capitato recentemente di constata. ай Октавио ПасЗа първи път се предлага участие на италиански писател и идеята е той да представи заниманията си по възможно най концентрирания и красноречив начин пред студентитеКалвино се заема да пише шест предложения за следващото хилядолетие някои достойнства качества или характерни черти на литературата които са ми особено скъпи в перспективата на новото хилядолетиеПочива от инсулт през с?.